Charles Sturt University commenced herbicide resistance monitoring in 1991. A random survey in 1991 to determine the level of resistance in annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) to selective herbicides across the south-west slopes region of New South Wales found that 30% of samples were resistant to at least 1 herbicide. A subsequent survey of commercially available ryegrass seed found that 58% of these samples were resistant to at least 1 herbicide. As a result of these findings, a commercial testing service was established and has since received samples from a large proportion of the southern Australian cropping belt. Seventy-seven percent of samples tested were resistant to Group AI, 40% to Group B and 22% to Group AII herbicides. Lower levels of resistance were found to Group D (8%), Group C (1%) and Group M (0.4%) herbicides. The correlation between resistance in Group AI and AII herbicides was lower than expected given that these herbicides are considered to have the same mode of action. Within the Group AI herbicides the observed response of the samples was consistent across herbicide formulations. Resistance to clethodim varied from observed responses to other Group AII herbicides. The variation in resistance levels (and degree of multiple resistance) in each Australian state is discussed in relation to environmental conditions and cultural practices. The size of this dataset allows for the analysis of the relationships present among herbicide resistant annual ryegrass.