A long term reference frame for hierarchical B-picture based video coding

Manoranjan Paul, Weisi Lin, Chiew Tong Lau, Bu-Sung Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)


Generally, H.264/AVC video coding standard with hierarchical bipredictive picture (HBP) structure outperforms the classical prediction structures such as “IPPP...” and “IBBP...” through better exploitation of data correlation using reference frames and unequal quantization setting among frames. However, multiple reference frames (MRFs) techniques are not fully exploited in the HBP scheme because of the computational requirement for B-frames, unavailability of adjacent reference frames, and with no explicit sorting of the reference frames for foreground or background being used. To exploit MRFs fully and explicitly in background referencing, we observe that not a single frame of a video is appropriate to be the reference frame as no one covers adequate background of a video. To overcome the problems, we propose a new coding scheme with the HBP, which uses the most common frame in scene (McFIS), generated by background modeling, as a long-term reference (LTR) frame for the third unipredictive reference frame, so that foreground and background areas are expected to be referenced from the two frames in the HBP structure and the McFIS, respectively. There are two approaches to generate McFIS under the proposed methodology. In the first approach, we generate a McFIS using a number of original frames of a scene in a video and then encode it as an I-frame with a higher quality. For the rest of the scene, this generated I-frame is used as an LTR frame. In the second approach, we generate an McFIS from the decoded frames and then use it as an LTR frame, without the need to encode the McFIS. The first and the second approaches are suitable for a video with static background and dynamic background, respectively. In general, the second approach requires more computational time than that of the the first approach. The experiments confirm that the proposed scheme outperforms three state-of-the-art algorithms by improving the image quality significantly with reduced computational time.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1729-1742
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2014


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