A multicentre assessment of contemporary laboratory assays for heparin induced thrombocytopenia

Emmanuel J Favaloro, Soma Mohammed, Dea Donikian, Mayuko Kondo, Elizabeth Duncan, Olivia Yacoub, Diane Zebeljan, Sara Ng, Erica Malan, Agnes Yuen, Joanne Beggs, Samira Moosavi, Robyn Coleman, Nathan Klose, Kent Chapman, Lauren Cavanaugh, Leonardo Pasalic, Penelope Motum, Chee Wee Tan, Timothy Brighton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of heparin therapy. In some patients, HIT causes platelet activation and thrombosis (sometimes abbreviated HITT), which leads to adverse clinical sequalae ('pathological HIT'). The likelihood of HIT is initially assessed clinically, typically using a scoring system, of which the 4T score is that most utilised. Subsequent laboratory testing to confirm or exclude HIT facilitates exclusion or diagnosis and management. The current investigation comprises a multicentre (n=9) assessment of contemporary laboratory testing for HIT, as performed over the past 1-3 years in each site and comprising testing of over 1200 samples. The primary laboratory test used by study participants (n=8) comprised a chemiluminescence procedure (HIT-IgG(PF4-H)) performed on an AcuStar instrument. Additional immunological testing performed by study sites included lateral flow (STiC, Stago), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Asserachrom (HPIA IgG), PaGIA (BioRad), plus functional assays, primarily serotonin release assay (SRA) or platelet aggregation methods. The chemiluminescence procedure yielded a highly sensitive screening method for identifying functional HIT, given high area under the curve (AUC, generally ≥0.9) in a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis against SRA as gold standard. ELISA testing resulted in lower ROC AUC scores (<0.8) and higher levels of false positives. Although there is clear association with the likelihood of HIT, the 4T score had less utility than literature suggests, and was comparable to a previous study reported by some of the authors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)247-256
Number of pages10
JournalPathology
Volume53
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021

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