A review of mammographic image quality in Papua New Guinea

Ruth Pape, Kelly Maree Spuur, Jenny Maree Wilkinson, Aileen Zuhukepe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Downloads (Pure)


Introduction: To report for the first time the image quality of mammograms performed in Papua New Guinea (PNG) using the Perfect, Good, Moderate, Inadequate (PGMI) image evaluation system (IES); and to benchmark the image quality against BreastScreen Australia (BSA) National Accreditation Standards (NAS). Methods: A retrospective image quality analysis of the de-identified mammograms of 102 women imaged at the Port Moresby General Hospital (PMGH) was undertaken using the PGMI IES. Each craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) image was assigned a grade and the reasons for the grade recorded. Age was recorded in years. Simple frequency analysis was undertaken and comparison with BSA NAS 2.4 was made. Results: Women were aged between 25 and 74 years. There were 111 CC views and 109 MLO views. The most frequent individual grade for the CC view was G (83.8%) and for the MLO view M (72.48%); and for a routine series (four images), P and G combined (14.8%). Non-visualisation of the IMA (28%), nipple not in profile (26%) and short length of pectoral muscle (12%) were the most cited reasons for assigning an M grade. Conclusion: The reported image quality is not commensurate with that required by BSA (P and G > 50%) and while common positioning errors can be rectified through education and training, it is also important to recognise the complex challenges faced by PNG radiographers in obtaining mammographic images that extend beyond education and training and reflect the emerging nature of the modality as well as wider health, economic and other issues. This work raises the need for national standards, dedicated equipment, and radiographer education to best serve the women of PNG.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-29
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Issue number1
Early online date21 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


Dive into the research topics of 'A review of mammographic image quality in Papua New Guinea'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this