The first confirmed mechanism for aluminum (Al) resistance in plants is encoded by the wheat (Triticum aestivum) gene, TaALMT1, on chromosome 4DL. TaALMT1 controls the Al-activated efflux of malate from roots, and this mechanism is widespread among Al-resistant genotypes of diverse genetic origins. This study describes a second mechanism for Al resistance in wheat that relies on citrate efflux. Citrate efflux occurred constitutively from the roots of Brazilian cultivars Carazinho, Maringa, Toropi, and Trintecinco. Examination of two populations segregating for this trait showed that citrate efflux was controlled by a single locus. Whole-genome linkage mapping using an F2 population derived from a cross between Carazinho (citrate efflux) and the cultivar EGA-Burke (no citrate efflux) identified a major locus on chromosome 4BL, Xcec, which accounts for more than 50% of the phenotypic variation in citrate efflux. Mendelizing the quantitative variation in citrate efflux into qualitative data, the Xcec locus was mapped within 6.3 cM of the microsatellite marker Xgwm495 locus. This linkage was validated in a second population of F2:3 families derived from a cross between Carazinho and the cultivar Egret (no citrate efflux). We show that expression of an expressed sequence tag, belonging to the multidrug and toxin efflux (MATE) gene family, correlates with the citrate efflux phenotype. This study provides genetic and physiological evidence that citrate efflux is a second mechanism for Al resistance in wheat.