Full dose heparin therapy is monitored by a variety of laboratory methods, of which the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is the most popular. A large number of APTT reagents are currently available, with different sensitivities to heparin evident in many. Within the literature it is apparent that there is a lack of consensus, and indeed some confusion, regarding the therapeutic ranges for the APTT for standard heparin therapy in the treatment of venous thromboembolic disease. Accordingly we conducted an Australasian survey to evaluate current laboratory and clinical practices in monitoring heparin therapy, to determine the extent of variation in the approach and to stimulate the process of standardisation of acceptable procedures and methodology. Results of the survey demonstrate that currently there is no uniform practice used to establish therapeutic ranges for monitoring standard heparin therapy. Furthermore, results suggest that current practice may lead to subtherapeutic anticoagulation in many laboratories.