A threat to the persimmon industry: A review of persimmon (Diospyros species) dieback

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Abstract

Persimmon dieback has been reported in several countries. However, despite multiple reports of this disease, there is very little published information regarding its management and impact on the persimmon industry. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on persimmon dieback, discuss the potential impact of the disease on the persimmon industry and identify knowledge gaps. Persimmon dieback pathogens belong to the Botryosphaeriaceae, Diaporthaceae, Diatrypaceae, Glomerellaceae, Togniniaceae fungal families and the bacterial family, Pseudomonadaceae. Common symptoms of persimmon dieback include blackening and streaking of vascular tissues, twig dieback, and wedge-shaped necrosis typical in woody tissues when cut in transverse cross-section. Infected branches negatively affect the production of fruiting spurs, reducing the capacity to produce fruit, thereby significantly decreasing yield. Severe infection may lead to tree death. It is unknown which organisms are predominantly responsible for the dieback symptoms. Hence, management of the disease may be complex. Most pathogens associated with persimmon dieback have a broad host range and can co-infect persimmon fruits and other economically important crops. Current management options include removing and burning infected parts and disinfecting pruning tools. For Phomopsis-infected trees, mancozeb, pyraclostrobin, prochloraz and metalaxyl-M were used to treat the nursery stock. Persimmon dieback has been reported in 10 out of more than 60 persimmon-growing countries. Absence of disease reports from remaining countries may indicate that dieback of persimmons is absent or simply overlooked. The etiology and epidemiology of persimmon dieback in these other persimmon-growing countries are yet to be elucidated.
Original languageEnglish
Article number106672
JournalCrop Protection
Volume180
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024

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