Adipocyte differentiation (AD) and AD-specific gene expression was studied in 3T3-L1 cells in response to oleic acid (OA) or linoleic acid (LA) alone and in combination with insulin. This system facilitated the study of key regulators of adipogenesis PPAR gamma and C/EBP alpha and other AD-specific genes, in the absence of dexamethasone (DEX) and isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine (IBMX) (components of the traditional AD medium, DMI). Lipid accumulation and expression levels of AD-specific genes were enhanced by both OA and LA in the presence of insulin but not by OA or LA alone. Gene expression levels of PPAR gamma, C/EBP alpha, FABP4, and SREBP1c induced by OA plus insulin, were comparable to DMI medium, by study day 10. The response to long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) plus insulin in the presence or absence of LY294002 demonstrated that the insulin-induced PI 3-kinase pathway regulates AD and AD-specific gene expression levels. Insulin treatment in the presence or absence of genistein suggested that genistein invoked inhibition of AD and AD-specific gene expression. In contrast when LCFA were also included with insulin, the presence of genistein invoked a pronounced and opposite effect on AD to that in the absence of LCFA. This effect may be modulated via C/EBP alpha as C/EBP alpha but not PPAR gamma expression patterns closely reflected the changes in AD. DMI invoked a rapid expression of all genes studied, and LCFA plus insulin invoke more gradual increases in gene expression, to similar levels to those invoked by DMI. The model system is valuable for study of transactivators and response elements of PPAR gamma and C/EBP alpha genes.
Cheguru, P., Chapalamadugu, K. C., Doumit, ME., Murdoch, GK., & Hill, RA. (2012). Adipocyte differentiation-specific gene transcriptional response to C18 unsaturated fatty acids plus insulin. Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, 463(3), 429-447. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00424-011-1066-7