Adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT) in agriculture and smart farming towards urban greening: A review

A. A.Raneesha Madushanki, Malka N. Halgamuge, W. A.H.Surangi Wirasagoda, Ali Syed

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

100 Citations (Scopus)
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It is essential to increase the productivity of agricultural and farming processes to improve yields and cost-effectiveness with new technology such as the Internet of Things (IoT). In particular, IoT can make agricultural and farming industry processes more efficient by reducing human intervention through automation. In this study, the aim to analyze recently developed IoT applications in the agriculture and farming industries to provide an overview of sensor data collections, technologies, and sub-verticals such as water management and crop management. In this review, data is extracted from 60 peer-reviewed scientific publications (2016-2018) with a focus on IoT sub-verticals and sensor data collection for measurements to make accurate decisions. Our results from the reported studies show water management is the highest sub-vertical (28.08%) followed by crop management (14.60%) then smart farming (10.11%). From the data collection, livestock management and irrigation management resulted in the same percentage (5.61%). In regard to sensor data collection, the highest result was for the measurement of environmental temperature (24.87%) and environmental humidity (19.79%). There are also some other sensor data regarding soil moisture (15.73%) and soil pH (7.61%). Research indicates that of the technologies used in IoT application development, Wi-Fi is the most frequently used (30.27%) followed by mobile technology (21.10%). As per our review of the research, we can conclude that the agricultural sector (76.1%) is researched considerably more than compared to the farming sector (23.8%). This study should be used as a reference for members of the agricultural industry to improve and develop the use of IoT to enhance agricultural production efficiencies. This study also provides recommendations for future research to include IoT systems' scalability, heterogeneity aspects, IoT system architecture, data analysis methods, size or scale of the observed land or agricultural domain, IoT security and threat solutions/protocols, operational technology, data storage, cloud platform, and power supplies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-28
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jan 2019


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