Purpose: The purpose of the present review was to explore the pathogenesis and etiology of alveolar osteitis (AO) to obtain a more intuitive understanding of the clinical prevention and management of the condition. The different treatment modalities were discussed through both the mechanistic understanding of AO and the evidence regarding the different modes of prevention and management. Materials and Methods: The Ovid Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register online databases were used to complete an advanced search using the MeSH term “dry socket,” generating 756 results. Results: A total of 8 studies on the prevention of AO were included, with 66 studies included for review of the reported data overall. The information was categorized into incidence, etiology and pathogenesis, prevention, and management. The relevant background information and evidence for each category were summarized. Conclusions: Understanding of the pathogenesis and etiology of AO has improved in recent years, which has been helpful for developing effective evidence-based treatment and prevention of the condition. Clinicians should be aware of the complexity and multifactorial nature of the etiology of AO and the current concepts regarding the prevention and treatment of AO.