Progressive renal fibrosis is the final common pathway for all kidney diseases leading to chronic renal failure. Bee venom (BV) has been widely used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. However, the precise mechanism of BV in ameliorating the renal fibrosis is not fully understood. To investigate the therapeutic effects of BV against unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal fibrosis, BVwas given intraperitoneally after ureteral ligation. At seven days after UUO surgery, the kidney tissues were collected for protein analysis and histologic examination. Histological observation revealed that UUO induced a considerable increase in the numberof infiltrated inflammatory cells. However, BV treatment markedly reduced these reactions compared with untreated UUO mice. The expression levels of TNF-a and IL-1ÃŸ were significantly reduced in BV treated mice compared with UUO mice. In addition, treatment with BV significantly inhibited TGF-ÃŸ1 and fibronectin expression in UUO mice. Moreover, the expression of a-SMA was markedly withdrawn after treatment withBV. These findings suggest that BV attenuates renal fibrosis and reduces inflammatory responses by suppression of multiple growth factor-mediated pro-fibrotic genes. In conclusion, BV may be a useful therapeutic agent for the prevention of fibrosis that characterizes progression ofchronic kidney disease. Â© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.