Antiphospholipid Antibody Testing for Anti-cardiolipin and Anti-β2 Glycoprotein I Antibodies Using Chemiluminescence-Based Panels

Emmanuel J Favaloro, Soma Mohammed, Ronny Vong, Leonardo Pasalic

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Antiphospholipid (antibody) syndrome (APS) is a prothrombotic condition with increased risk for thrombosis and pregnancy-related morbidity. In addition to clinical criteria related to these risks, APS is characterized by the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), as detected in the laboratory using a potentially wide variety of assays. The three APS criteria-related assays are lupus anticoagulant (LA), as detected using clot-based assays, and the solid-phase assays of anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI), with immunoglobulin subclasses of IgG and/or IgM. These tests may also be used for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In particular, APS diagnosis/exclusion remains challenging for clinicians and laboratories because of the heterogeneity of clinical presentations in those being evaluated and the technical application and variety of the associated tests used in laboratories. Although LA testing is affected by a wide variety of anticoagulants, which are often given to APS patients to prevent any associated clinical morbidity, detection of solid-phase aPL is not influenced by these anticoagulants, and this thus represents a potential advantage to their application. On the other hand, various technical issues challenge accurate laboratory detection or exclusion of aPL. This report describes protocols for the assessment of solid-phase aPL, specifically aCL and aβ2GPI of IgG and IgM class by means of a chemiluminescence-based assay panel. These protocols reflect tests able to be performed on the AcuStar instrument (Werfen/Instrumentation Laboratory). Certain regional approvals may also allow this testing to be performed on a BIO-FLASH instrument (Werfen/Instrumentation Laboratory).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)297-314
Number of pages18
JournalMethods in Molecular Biology
Publication statusPublished - 2023


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