Arsenic is present naturally in many geological formations around the world and has been found to be a major source of contamination of groundwater in some countries. This form of contamination represents a serious threat to health, economic and social well‐being, particularly in under‐developed countries and remote communities. The chemistry of arsenic and the factors that influence the form(s) in which it may be present and its fate when introduced into the environment is discussed briefly in this review. A global overview of arsenic contamination of groundwater around the world is then discussed. As a case study, the identified and established causes of groundwater contamination by arsenic in Bangladesh is highlighted and a perspective is provided on the consequential health, agricultural, social and economic impacts. In addition, the relevant removal strategies that have been developed and can generally be used to remediate arsenic contamination are discussed. Also, the possible influence of groundwater inorganic compositions, particularly iron and phosphate, on the effectiveness of arsenic removal is discussed. Furthermore, some specific examples of the filter systems developed successfully for domestic arsenic removal from groundwater to provide required potable water for human consumption are discussed. Lastly, important considerations for further improving the performance and effectiveness of these filter systems for domestic use are outlined.