Phospholipids are a major kind of lipids in rice grains and have fundamental nutritional and functional benefits to the plant. Their lyso forms (lysophospholipids, LPLs) often form inclusion complexes with amylose or independently influence the physicochemical and functional properties of rice starch. However, the genetic basis for LPL synthesis in rice endosperm is largely unknown. Here, we performed a preliminary association test of 13 LPL compositions among 20 rice accessions, and identified 22 putative main-effect quantitative trait loci responsible for all LPLs except for LPC14:0 and LPE14:0. Five derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences and one insertion/deletion marker for three LPL-synthesis-related candidate genes were developed. Association analysis revealed two markers significantly associated with starch LPL traits. These results provide an insight into the genetic basis of phospholipid biosynthesis in rice and may contribute to the rice quality breeding programs using functional markers.