Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Aureobasidium pullulans were investigated for antagonistic actions against Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea. Conidia germination and colony growth of these two phytopathogens were suppressed by A. pullulans VOCs. A novel experimental setup was devised to directly extract VOCs using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) from antagonist-pathogen culture headspace. The proposed system is a robust method to quantify microbial VOCs using an internal standard. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares deconvolution of SPME-GC-MS spectra identified fourteen A. pullulans VOCs. 3-Methyl-1-hexanol, acetone, 2-heptanone, ethyl butyrate, 3-methylbutyl acetate and 2-methylpropyl acetate were newly identified in A. pullulans headspace. Partial least squares discriminant analysis models with variable importance in projection and selectivity ratio identified four VOCs (ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol), with high explanatory power for discrimination between A. pullulans and pathogen. The antifungal activity and synergistic interactions of the four VOCs were evaluated using a Box-Behnken design with response surface modelling. Ethanol and 2-phenylethanol are the key inhibitory A. pullulans VOCs against both B. cinerea and A. alternata. Our findings introduce a novel, robust, quantitative approach for microbial VOCs analyses and give insights into the potential use of A. pullulans VOCs to control B. cinerea and A. alternata.
|Publication status||Published - 2020|