BackgroundThis study was designed to assess the clinical effect of bone marrow mononuclear cells including mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).MethodsOne hundred patients were divided into a study (n=60) or a control group (n=40). Bone marrow mononuclear cells from the same patient were injected to the perihemorrhage area in the base ganglia through an intracranial drainage tube 5.9days after ICH. National Institute Stroke Scale (NIHSSS) and Barthel index was used to assess neurologic impairment and daily activities, respectively, before and 6months after intervention.ResultsSix months after implantation, the NIHSS score in the study group was lower than in the control group (10.09±8.86 vs 14.35±10.14, P<0.01), whereas the Barthel scores were higher (57.39±23.51 vs 46.90±20.29, P<0.01). Neurological and functional improvement was observed in 52 (86.7%) of the study group patients, and in 17 (42.5%) of the control group patients (P=0.001). No allergic or other adverse effects were observed in the study group.ConclusionAutologous bone marrow mononuclear cell implantation reduced neurological impairment and improved activities of daily living in a selected group of ICH patients. Further studies are required to ascertain the long-term safety and efficacy of this treatment.