Wheat varietal autotoxicity and varietal allelopathy were assessed based on plant extract and root exudate bioassays under laboratory conditions. Aqueous extract of wheat differed in varietal autotoxicity and varietal allelopathy, inhibiting wheat germination by 2-21%, radicle growth by 15-30%, and coleoptile growth by 5-20%, depending on the combination of the receiver and donor. Extracts of cv Triller or cv Currawong were more allelopathic to other wheat varieties than cv Batavia and cv Federation. Triller extract was more autotoxic than Federation. Assessment of root exudates by the equal-compartment-agar-method further identified the significant differences in varietal autotoxicity and varietal allelopathy of root exudates between wheat varieties, with root exudates of Triller or Batavia showing stronger autotoxic or allelopathic effects than Currawong or Federation. The varietal autotoxicity and allelopathy of root exudates also showed a characteristic radial inhibitory pattern in the agar growth medium. These results suggest that careful selection of suitable wheat varieties is necessary in a continuous cropping system in order to minimize the negative impacts of varietal allelopathy and varietal autotoxicity. Factors affecting autotoxicity in the field and strategies in autotoxicity management are discussed.