The production and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa can be dramatically reduced by replant disease under consecutive monoculture. The root-associated microbiome, also known as the second genome of the plant, was investigated to understand its impact on plant health. Culture-dependent and culture-independent pyrosequencing analysis was applied to assess the shifts in soil bacterial communities in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane under consecutive monoculture. The results show that the root-associated microbiome (including rhizosphere and rhizoplane microbiomes) was significantly impacted by rhizocompartments and consecutive monoculture. Consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa led to a significant decline in the relative abundance of the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane. Furthermore, the families Flavobacteriaceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae enriched while Pseudomonadaceae, Bacillaceae, and Micrococcaceae decreased under consecutive monoculture. At the genus level, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Arthrobacter were prevalent in the newly planted soil, which decreased in consecutive monocultured soils. Besides, culture-dependent analysis confirmed the widespread presence of Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. in newly planted soil and their strong antagonistic activities against fungal pathogens. In conclusion, R. glutinosa monoculture resulted in distinct root-associated microbiome variation with a reduction in the abundance of beneficial microbes, which might contribute to the declined soil suppressiveness to fungal pathogens in the monoculture regime.