An assessment of hydrocarbon and metal/metalloids (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, zinc) contamination in sediments from Lake Mulwala, Australia, was undertaken. The objectives of the study were: (i) to determine the extent of contamination in the lake sediments, compared to Australian and international sediment quality guidelines, and (ii) to attempt to identify the contaminant sources to the lake. With the exception of a few samples containing elevated levels of arsenic and/or mercury, the levels of all contaminants in the sediment samples taken from the lake were below the 'lower trigger' of the Australian Sediment Quality Guidelines that would warrant further investigation. High molecular weight hydrocarbons (up to 700 mg kg'1) were found in most sediment samples. Non-metric statistical analysis indicated that the contaminant distribution was different in different parts of the lake, with the lowest concentrations generally found at the influent to the lake. No definitive source(s) of contamination could be identified for either metalloids or hydrocarbons.