Recent advances in large-scale networked sensor technologies and the explosive growth in big data computing have made it possible for new application deployments in smart cities ecosystems. In this paper, we define big sensor data systems, and survey progress made in the development and applications of big sensor data research. We classify the existing research based on their characteristics and smart city layer challenges. Next, we discuss several applications for big sensor data systems, and explore the potential of large-scale networked sensor technologies for smart cities in the big data era. We conclude this paper by discussing future work directions highlighting some futuristic applications. The aim of this survey paper is to be useful for researchers to get insights into this important area, and motivate the development of practical solutions toward deployment in smart cities.