The chemical basis for wheat seedling allelopathy on the growth of annual ryegrass was investigated by the identification and quantification of multiple allelochemicals from wheat seedlings. Results indicated that 58 wheat accessions differed significantly in seedling allelopathy and inhibited the root growth of ryegrass from 10 to 91%, depending on accession. Analysis of allelochemicals by GC/ MS/MS indicated that allelopathy was significantly correlated with the levels of measured allelochemicals in the shoots and roots of young wheat seedlings. Ryegrass root growth was also negatively correlated with the levels of p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, and trans-ferulic acids in root exudates. Wheat allelopathic potential was negatively correlated with the levels of the eight known allelochemicals quantified in the shoots, roots, and water-agar medium, with multiple regression coefficients (r) of -0.61, -0.71, and -0.71, respectively. In comparison with weakly allelopathic accessions, strongly allelopathic accessions produced significantly higher amounts of allelochemicals in the shoots and roots of the wheat seedlings and also exuded larger quantities of allelochemicals into the growth medium. Wheat accessions with strong seedling allelopathy might be useful for management of weeds during the establishment stage, thereby reducing the need for commercial herbicides in early-season application.