Biophenols: Enzymes (β-secretase, Cholinesterases, histone deacetylase and tyrosinase) inhibitors from olive (Olea europaea L.)

Syed Haris Omar, Christopher J. Scott, Adam S. Hamlin, Hassan K. Obied

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Citations (Scopus)


The focus of this study was on inhibition of enzymes involved in the pathogenesis Alzheimer's disease (AD) including prime amyloid beta (Aβ) producing enzyme (β-secretase: BACE-1) and disease progression enzymes including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), histone deacetylase (HDAC), and tyrosinase along with the catecholamine L-DOPA, by using olive biophenols. Here we report the strongest inhibition of BACE-1 from rutin (IC50: 3.8 nM) followed by verbascoside (IC50: 6.3 nM) and olive fruit extract (IC50: 18 ng), respectively. Olive biophenol, quercetin exhibited strongest enzyme inhibitory activity against tyrosinase (IC50: 10.73 μM), BChE (IC50: 19.08 μM), AChE (IC50: 55.44 μM), and HDAC (IC50: 105.1 μM) enzymes. Furthermore, olive biophenol verbascoside (IC50: 188.6 μM), and hydroxytyrosol extreme extract (IC50: 66.22 μg) were showed the highest levels of inhibition against the HDAC enzyme. Neuroprotective capacity against levodopa-induced toxicity in neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells of olive biophenols were assessed, where rutin indicated the highest neuroprotection (74%), followed by caffeic acid (73%), and extract hydroxytyrosol extreme (97%), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in vitro report on the enzymes inhibitory activity of olive biophenols. Taken together, our in vitro results data suggest that olive biophenols could be a promising natural inhibitor, which may reduce the enzyme-induced toxicity associated with the oxidative stress involved in the progression of AD. Chemical compounds used in the study: Acetylthiocholine iodide (PubChem CID: 74629); S-Butyrylthiocholine chloride (PubChem CID: 3015121); Caffeic acid (PubChem CID: 689043); Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (PubChem: 679); L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) (PubChem CID: 6047); 5,5′-Dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) (PubChem CID: 6254); Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (PubChem CID: 65064); Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (PubChem CID: 6049); Galantamine hydrobromide (PubChem CID: 121587); L-Glutamine (PubChem CID: 5961); Hydroxytyrosol (PubChem CID: 82755); Kojic acid (PubChem CID: 3840); Luteolin (PubChem CID: 5280445); Oleuropein (PubChem CID: 5281544); Penicillin-streptomycin (PubChem CID: 131715954); Quercetin (PubChem CID: 5280343); Rutin (PubChem CID: 5280805); Tris-HCl buffer (PubChem: 93573); Trypan blue (PubChem: 9562061).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)118-129
Number of pages12
Early online dateMay 2018
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018


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