Bovine brucellosis in Pakistan; an analysis of engagement with risk factors in smallholder farmer settings

Shumaila Arif, Peter C Thomson, Marta Hernandez-Jover, David M McGill, Hassan M Warriach, Khizar Hayat, Jane Heller

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in smallholder farms in seven regions in Pakistan, identify herd and individual level risk factors for seropositivity and assess the level of engagement of farmers with risk factors. In total, 1063 cattle and buffalo belonging to 420 herds in seven districts were sampled. The Rose Bengal test (RBT), indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) were used for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis on all the serum samples. The associations between herd-and animal-level risk factors and seropositivity were investigated using logistic regression analyses. In addition, herd management practice scores, created to quantify the number of management practices undertaken that pose a risk for Brucella transmission, were calculated and compared between seropositive and negative herds within each district. Overall herd and animal prevalence were estimated to be 16.2% (95% CI, 13-20%) and 8.7% (95% CI, 7.2-10.6%), respectively, across all districts sampled. Herds with a history of last trimester abortion were found to be more likely to be positive than herds without such history (OR = 2.06, 95% CI, 1.09-3.89), providing validation of our findings and identifying that clinical disease is occurring in this region. It was also identified that herds with five to eight buffalo (OR = 3.80, 95% CI, 1.69-8.49), and those with more than eight buffalo (OR = 3.81, 95% CI, 1.51-9.58) were more likely to be positive for Brucella than those with less (one to two and three to four) buffaloes present in the herd. The presence of other domestic animals at the farm and purchasing animals in last year were found to have no association with seropositivity. The findings of this study support the need for the development of targeted intervention strategies specific to the disease status of each district.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages12
JournalVeterinary Medicine and Science
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 08 Apr 2019

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Bovine Brucellosis
Buffaloes
Pakistan
Brucella
Practice Management
Domestic Animals
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Rose Bengal
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Third Pregnancy Trimester
Cross-Sectional Studies
Logistic Models
History
Regression Analysis
Farmers
Serum

Cite this

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title = "Bovine brucellosis in Pakistan; an analysis of engagement with risk factors in smallholder farmer settings",
abstract = "A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in smallholder farms in seven regions in Pakistan, identify herd and individual level risk factors for seropositivity and assess the level of engagement of farmers with risk factors. In total, 1063 cattle and buffalo belonging to 420 herds in seven districts were sampled. The Rose Bengal test (RBT), indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) were used for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis on all the serum samples. The associations between herd-and animal-level risk factors and seropositivity were investigated using logistic regression analyses. In addition, herd management practice scores, created to quantify the number of management practices undertaken that pose a risk for Brucella transmission, were calculated and compared between seropositive and negative herds within each district. Overall herd and animal prevalence were estimated to be 16.2{\%} (95{\%} CI, 13-20{\%}) and 8.7{\%} (95{\%} CI, 7.2-10.6{\%}), respectively, across all districts sampled. Herds with a history of last trimester abortion were found to be more likely to be positive than herds without such history (OR = 2.06, 95{\%} CI, 1.09-3.89), providing validation of our findings and identifying that clinical disease is occurring in this region. It was also identified that herds with five to eight buffalo (OR = 3.80, 95{\%} CI, 1.69-8.49), and those with more than eight buffalo (OR = 3.81, 95{\%} CI, 1.51-9.58) were more likely to be positive for Brucella than those with less (one to two and three to four) buffaloes present in the herd. The presence of other domestic animals at the farm and purchasing animals in last year were found to have no association with seropositivity. The findings of this study support the need for the development of targeted intervention strategies specific to the disease status of each district.",
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Bovine brucellosis in Pakistan; an analysis of engagement with risk factors in smallholder farmer settings. / Arif, Shumaila; Thomson, Peter C; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; McGill, David M; Warriach, Hassan M; Hayat, Khizar; Heller, Jane.

In: Veterinary Medicine and Science, 08.04.2019, p. 1.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Bovine brucellosis in Pakistan; an analysis of engagement with risk factors in smallholder farmer settings

AU - Arif, Shumaila

AU - Thomson, Peter C

AU - Hernandez-Jover, Marta

AU - McGill, David M

AU - Warriach, Hassan M

AU - Hayat, Khizar

AU - Heller, Jane

N1 - © 2019 The Authors. Veterinary Medicine and Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

PY - 2019/4/8

Y1 - 2019/4/8

N2 - A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in smallholder farms in seven regions in Pakistan, identify herd and individual level risk factors for seropositivity and assess the level of engagement of farmers with risk factors. In total, 1063 cattle and buffalo belonging to 420 herds in seven districts were sampled. The Rose Bengal test (RBT), indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) were used for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis on all the serum samples. The associations between herd-and animal-level risk factors and seropositivity were investigated using logistic regression analyses. In addition, herd management practice scores, created to quantify the number of management practices undertaken that pose a risk for Brucella transmission, were calculated and compared between seropositive and negative herds within each district. Overall herd and animal prevalence were estimated to be 16.2% (95% CI, 13-20%) and 8.7% (95% CI, 7.2-10.6%), respectively, across all districts sampled. Herds with a history of last trimester abortion were found to be more likely to be positive than herds without such history (OR = 2.06, 95% CI, 1.09-3.89), providing validation of our findings and identifying that clinical disease is occurring in this region. It was also identified that herds with five to eight buffalo (OR = 3.80, 95% CI, 1.69-8.49), and those with more than eight buffalo (OR = 3.81, 95% CI, 1.51-9.58) were more likely to be positive for Brucella than those with less (one to two and three to four) buffaloes present in the herd. The presence of other domestic animals at the farm and purchasing animals in last year were found to have no association with seropositivity. The findings of this study support the need for the development of targeted intervention strategies specific to the disease status of each district.

AB - A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in smallholder farms in seven regions in Pakistan, identify herd and individual level risk factors for seropositivity and assess the level of engagement of farmers with risk factors. In total, 1063 cattle and buffalo belonging to 420 herds in seven districts were sampled. The Rose Bengal test (RBT), indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) were used for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis on all the serum samples. The associations between herd-and animal-level risk factors and seropositivity were investigated using logistic regression analyses. In addition, herd management practice scores, created to quantify the number of management practices undertaken that pose a risk for Brucella transmission, were calculated and compared between seropositive and negative herds within each district. Overall herd and animal prevalence were estimated to be 16.2% (95% CI, 13-20%) and 8.7% (95% CI, 7.2-10.6%), respectively, across all districts sampled. Herds with a history of last trimester abortion were found to be more likely to be positive than herds without such history (OR = 2.06, 95% CI, 1.09-3.89), providing validation of our findings and identifying that clinical disease is occurring in this region. It was also identified that herds with five to eight buffalo (OR = 3.80, 95% CI, 1.69-8.49), and those with more than eight buffalo (OR = 3.81, 95% CI, 1.51-9.58) were more likely to be positive for Brucella than those with less (one to two and three to four) buffaloes present in the herd. The presence of other domestic animals at the farm and purchasing animals in last year were found to have no association with seropositivity. The findings of this study support the need for the development of targeted intervention strategies specific to the disease status of each district.

U2 - 10.1002/vms3.165

DO - 10.1002/vms3.165

M3 - Review article

SP - 1

JO - Veterinary Medicine and Science

JF - Veterinary Medicine and Science

SN - 2053-1095

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