This work investigated the influence of grape variety, vineyard location, and grape harvest maturity, combined with different oxygen availability treatments, on red wine composition during bottle aging. Chemometric analysis of wine compositional data (i.e., wine color parameters, SO2, metals, and volatile compounds) demonstrated that the wine samples could be differentiated according to the different viticultural or bottle-aging factors. Grape variety, vineyard location, and grape maturity showed greater influence on wine composition than bottle-aging conditions. For most measured wine compositional variables, the evolution patterns adopted from the viticultural factors were not altered by oxygen availability treatment. However, contrasting evolution patterns for some variables were observed according to specific viticultural factors, with examples including dimethyl sulfide, phenylacetaldehyde, maltol, and β-damascenone for vineyard locations, 2-methylbutanal, 1,4-cineole, and linalool for grape variety, and methanethiol, methional, and homofuraneol for grape maturity.