Channel change following European settlement

Gilmore Creek, southeastern Australia

Ken Page, Paul Frazier, Timothy Pietsch, Remy Dehaan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

European settlement in southeastern Australia led to rapid changes in the morphology of many upland streams. However, our knowledge of the nature of these changes is limited as historical records and preserved palaeo channels are rare. In this study we compare awell-preserved section of the late Holocene palaeo channel of Gilmore Creek to its present channel. We used a combination of map and aerial photograph interpretation, field survey,OSL dating and discharge analysis to describe and compare the modern and palaeo channels and establish a firm date for the timing of channel change. In common with many other streams in southeastern Australia Gilmore Creek's late Holocene channel meandered acrossa stable well-vegetated and frequently inundated floodplain. After about 1830 European settlers quickly modified the catchment by clearing riparian and hillslope vegetation, introducing grazing animals and other exotic species and mining for alluvial gold in the headwaters.The OSL dates show that between about 1850 and 1880 the small meandering channel aggraded with coarse sands and then up to about 1 m of silty sand was deposited over the floodplain. Declining sediment input from upstream channel avulsion before 1890 resulted in the establishment of a straighter, larger capacity channel that incised to the level of basal cobbles and, in places, to bedrock. The dramatic change in channel pattern resembles that described on the Cann River in eastern Victoria following the removal of riparian vegetation and within-channel coarse woody debris. At Gilmore Creek increased channel capacity has greatly reduced the average frequency of floodplain inundation. High values of specific streampower suggest that channel morphology is now well adjusted to the present flow regime.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1398-1411
Number of pages14
JournalEarth Surface Processes and Landforms
Volume32
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007

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channel change
present
gold
animal
river
firm
interpretation
floodplain
creek
Holocene
avulsion
coarse woody debris
channel morphology
sand
riparian vegetation
historical record
hillslope
aerial photograph
headwater
field survey

Cite this

Page, Ken ; Frazier, Paul ; Pietsch, Timothy ; Dehaan, Remy. / Channel change following European settlement : Gilmore Creek, southeastern Australia. In: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 2007 ; Vol. 32, No. 9. pp. 1398-1411.
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Channel change following European settlement : Gilmore Creek, southeastern Australia. / Page, Ken; Frazier, Paul; Pietsch, Timothy; Dehaan, Remy.

In: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 32, No. 9, 2007, p. 1398-1411.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Channel change following European settlement

T2 - Gilmore Creek, southeastern Australia

AU - Page, Ken

AU - Frazier, Paul

AU - Pietsch, Timothy

AU - Dehaan, Remy

N1 - Imported on 12 Apr 2017 - DigiTool details were: Journal title (773t) = Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. ISSNs: 0197-9337;

PY - 2007

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N2 - European settlement in southeastern Australia led to rapid changes in the morphology of many upland streams. However, our knowledge of the nature of these changes is limited as historical records and preserved palaeo channels are rare. In this study we compare awell-preserved section of the late Holocene palaeo channel of Gilmore Creek to its present channel. We used a combination of map and aerial photograph interpretation, field survey,OSL dating and discharge analysis to describe and compare the modern and palaeo channels and establish a firm date for the timing of channel change. In common with many other streams in southeastern Australia Gilmore Creek's late Holocene channel meandered acrossa stable well-vegetated and frequently inundated floodplain. After about 1830 European settlers quickly modified the catchment by clearing riparian and hillslope vegetation, introducing grazing animals and other exotic species and mining for alluvial gold in the headwaters.The OSL dates show that between about 1850 and 1880 the small meandering channel aggraded with coarse sands and then up to about 1 m of silty sand was deposited over the floodplain. Declining sediment input from upstream channel avulsion before 1890 resulted in the establishment of a straighter, larger capacity channel that incised to the level of basal cobbles and, in places, to bedrock. The dramatic change in channel pattern resembles that described on the Cann River in eastern Victoria following the removal of riparian vegetation and within-channel coarse woody debris. At Gilmore Creek increased channel capacity has greatly reduced the average frequency of floodplain inundation. High values of specific streampower suggest that channel morphology is now well adjusted to the present flow regime.

AB - European settlement in southeastern Australia led to rapid changes in the morphology of many upland streams. However, our knowledge of the nature of these changes is limited as historical records and preserved palaeo channels are rare. In this study we compare awell-preserved section of the late Holocene palaeo channel of Gilmore Creek to its present channel. We used a combination of map and aerial photograph interpretation, field survey,OSL dating and discharge analysis to describe and compare the modern and palaeo channels and establish a firm date for the timing of channel change. In common with many other streams in southeastern Australia Gilmore Creek's late Holocene channel meandered acrossa stable well-vegetated and frequently inundated floodplain. After about 1830 European settlers quickly modified the catchment by clearing riparian and hillslope vegetation, introducing grazing animals and other exotic species and mining for alluvial gold in the headwaters.The OSL dates show that between about 1850 and 1880 the small meandering channel aggraded with coarse sands and then up to about 1 m of silty sand was deposited over the floodplain. Declining sediment input from upstream channel avulsion before 1890 resulted in the establishment of a straighter, larger capacity channel that incised to the level of basal cobbles and, in places, to bedrock. The dramatic change in channel pattern resembles that described on the Cann River in eastern Victoria following the removal of riparian vegetation and within-channel coarse woody debris. At Gilmore Creek increased channel capacity has greatly reduced the average frequency of floodplain inundation. High values of specific streampower suggest that channel morphology is now well adjusted to the present flow regime.

KW - Avulsion

KW - Catchment modification

KW - Channel change

KW - OSL dating

KW - Palaeochannel

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DO - 10.1002/esp.1481

M3 - Article

VL - 32

SP - 1398

EP - 1411

JO - Earth Surfaces Processes

JF - Earth Surfaces Processes

SN - 0197-9337

IS - 9

ER -