Chemometric analysis of Amaranthus retroflexus in relation to livestock toxicity in southern Australia

Paul Weston, Saliya Gurusinghe, Emily Birckhead, Dominik Skoneczny, Jane Quinn, Leslie A. Weston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Amaranthus retroflexus L., an introduced invasive weed in southern Australia, has been associated with acute renal failure and/or mortality in a number of livestock species. While its leaves, flowers and stems are generally reported to contain high levels of nitrogen, few studies have fully characterised the chemical composition of A. retroflexus foliage with respect to mammalian toxicity. We performed extensive metabolic profiling of stems, leaves, roots and inflorescence tissues of A. retroflexus collected from three spatially and/or temporally distinct toxicity outbreaks, and report on the 1) composition of primary and secondary metabolites in methanolic extracts of A. retroflexus tissues using HPLC and HPLC-MS QToF and 2) chemometric analysis of A. retroflexus extracts in relation to the associated toxin(s). All tissues of A. retroflexus possessed an abundance of N-containing metabolites, particularly quaternary ammonium compounds which were identified as betaines, two of which (valine betaine and isoleucine betaine) are rarely encountered in plants. Cytotoxicity to murine fibroblasts was highest in extracts of leaf tissue and was associated with a single, a small modified peptide with high similarity to N-acetyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-alanyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-α-glutamyl-O-(carboxymethyl)-L-tyrosyl-L-leucinamide, a synthetic phosphotyrosyl mimic involved in cell signaling processes. One possible mode of action leading to acute renal failure in grazing livestock by a modified peptide such as this is proposed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
JournalPhytochemistry
Volume161
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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Amaranthus
Amaranthus retroflexus
Betaine
chemometrics
Livestock
Agriculture
Toxicity
livestock
Tissue
toxicity
Acute Kidney Injury
betaine
Metabolites
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Inflorescence
Peptides
Tissue Extracts
Isoleucine
Valine

Grant Number

  • B.WEE 0416

Cite this

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title = "Chemometric analysis of Amaranthus retroflexus in relation to livestock toxicity in southern Australia",
abstract = "Amaranthus retroflexus L., an introduced invasive weed in southern Australia, has been associated with acute renal failure and/or mortality in a number of livestock species. While its leaves, flowers and stems are generally reported to contain high levels of nitrogen, few studies have fully characterised the chemical composition of A. retroflexus foliage with respect to mammalian toxicity. We performed extensive metabolic profiling of stems, leaves, roots and inflorescence tissues of A. retroflexus collected from three spatially and/or temporally distinct toxicity outbreaks, and report on the 1) composition of primary and secondary metabolites in methanolic extracts of A. retroflexus tissues using HPLC and HPLC-MS QToF and 2) chemometric analysis of A. retroflexus extracts in relation to the associated toxin(s). All tissues of A. retroflexus possessed an abundance of N-containing metabolites, particularly quaternary ammonium compounds which were identified as betaines, two of which (valine betaine and isoleucine betaine) are rarely encountered in plants. Cytotoxicity to murine fibroblasts was highest in extracts of leaf tissue and was associated with a single, a small modified peptide with high similarity to N-acetyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-alanyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-α-glutamyl-O-(carboxymethyl)-L-tyrosyl-L-leucinamide, a synthetic phosphotyrosyl mimic involved in cell signaling processes. One possible mode of action leading to acute renal failure in grazing livestock by a modified peptide such as this is proposed.",
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Chemometric analysis of Amaranthus retroflexus in relation to livestock toxicity in southern Australia. / Weston, Paul; Gurusinghe, Saliya; Birckhead, Emily; Skoneczny, Dominik; Quinn, Jane; Weston, Leslie A.

In: Phytochemistry, Vol. 161, 2019, p. 1-10.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Chemometric analysis of Amaranthus retroflexus in relation to livestock toxicity in southern Australia

AU - Weston, Paul

AU - Gurusinghe, Saliya

AU - Birckhead, Emily

AU - Skoneczny, Dominik

AU - Quinn, Jane

AU - Weston, Leslie A.

PY - 2019

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AB - Amaranthus retroflexus L., an introduced invasive weed in southern Australia, has been associated with acute renal failure and/or mortality in a number of livestock species. While its leaves, flowers and stems are generally reported to contain high levels of nitrogen, few studies have fully characterised the chemical composition of A. retroflexus foliage with respect to mammalian toxicity. We performed extensive metabolic profiling of stems, leaves, roots and inflorescence tissues of A. retroflexus collected from three spatially and/or temporally distinct toxicity outbreaks, and report on the 1) composition of primary and secondary metabolites in methanolic extracts of A. retroflexus tissues using HPLC and HPLC-MS QToF and 2) chemometric analysis of A. retroflexus extracts in relation to the associated toxin(s). All tissues of A. retroflexus possessed an abundance of N-containing metabolites, particularly quaternary ammonium compounds which were identified as betaines, two of which (valine betaine and isoleucine betaine) are rarely encountered in plants. Cytotoxicity to murine fibroblasts was highest in extracts of leaf tissue and was associated with a single, a small modified peptide with high similarity to N-acetyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-alanyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-α-glutamyl-O-(carboxymethyl)-L-tyrosyl-L-leucinamide, a synthetic phosphotyrosyl mimic involved in cell signaling processes. One possible mode of action leading to acute renal failure in grazing livestock by a modified peptide such as this is proposed.

KW - livestock toxicity

KW - HPLC-MS/MS

KW - betaines

KW - cytotoxicity

KW - renal failture

KW - Amaranthus spp,

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JF - Phytochemistry

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ER -