Chronic effects and horizontal transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae strain QS155 infection in the sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Coleoptera : Brentidae)

Ronnie Dotaona, Bree A.L. Wilson, Mark M. Stevens, Joanne Holloway, Gavin J. Ash

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Cylas formicarius is a major pest of sweetpotato in Papua New Guinea. In this study, the chronic effects of infection with Metarhizium anisopliae strain QS155 in adult C. formicarius were investigated. Female fecundity was significantly reduced in treatments where females were infected directly and maintained in pairs with either infected or uninfected males, and to a statistically equivalent level (51%) when initially uninfected females were caged with infected males. A significant increase in the proportion of eggs left exposed outside the host plant occurred in response to either direct or indirect maternal exposure to M. anisopliae. The hatchability of eggs fully enclosed by host plant tissues was also significantly reduced by exposure of females to M. anisopliae; together these factors led to a total decline in reproductive success of 69%–80%. These results demonstrate that a conidial concentration of M. anisopliae strain QS155 well below that required for rapid host mortality adversely affects reproductive and behavioural traits in adult C. formicarius. When groups of C. formicarius were held together for 12 days after either all males, all females, or just a proportion of males were initially inoculated, clear evidence of horizontal transmission was obtained. In both males and females mortality arising from horizontal transmission was statistically equivalent to mortality levels when individuals of the same sex had been directly infected. Exposure to sporulating adult cadavers also caused significant mortality to uninfected SPW adults, and M. anisopliae was recovered from weevils that died following exposure to infected cadavers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-29
Number of pages6
JournalBiological Control
Volume114
Early online dateJul 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2017

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Cylas formicarius
Cylas formicarius elegantulus
Brentidae
Metarhizium anisopliae
long term effects
Coleoptera
infection
host plants
egg hatchability
Papua New Guinea
Curculionidae
plant response
plant tissues
fecundity
pests
gender

Cite this

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title = "Chronic effects and horizontal transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae strain QS155 infection in the sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Coleoptera : Brentidae)",
abstract = "Cylas formicarius is a major pest of sweetpotato in Papua New Guinea. In this study, the chronic effects of infection with Metarhizium anisopliae strain QS155 in adult C. formicarius were investigated. Female fecundity was significantly reduced in treatments where females were infected directly and maintained in pairs with either infected or uninfected males, and to a statistically equivalent level (51{\%}) when initially uninfected females were caged with infected males. A significant increase in the proportion of eggs left exposed outside the host plant occurred in response to either direct or indirect maternal exposure to M. anisopliae. The hatchability of eggs fully enclosed by host plant tissues was also significantly reduced by exposure of females to M. anisopliae; together these factors led to a total decline in reproductive success of 69{\%}–80{\%}. These results demonstrate that a conidial concentration of M. anisopliae strain QS155 well below that required for rapid host mortality adversely affects reproductive and behavioural traits in adult C. formicarius. When groups of C. formicarius were held together for 12 days after either all males, all females, or just a proportion of males were initially inoculated, clear evidence of horizontal transmission was obtained. In both males and females mortality arising from horizontal transmission was statistically equivalent to mortality levels when individuals of the same sex had been directly infected. Exposure to sporulating adult cadavers also caused significant mortality to uninfected SPW adults, and M. anisopliae was recovered from weevils that died following exposure to infected cadavers.",
keywords = "Cylas formicarius, Fecundity, Horizontal transmission, Metarhizium anisopliae, Sweetpotato",
author = "Ronnie Dotaona and Wilson, {Bree A.L.} and Stevens, {Mark M.} and Joanne Holloway and Ash, {Gavin J.}",
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year = "2017",
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Chronic effects and horizontal transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae strain QS155 infection in the sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Coleoptera : Brentidae). / Dotaona, Ronnie; Wilson, Bree A.L.; Stevens, Mark M.; Holloway, Joanne; Ash, Gavin J.

In: Biological Control, Vol. 114, 11.2017, p. 24-29.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Chronic effects and horizontal transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae strain QS155 infection in the sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Coleoptera : Brentidae)

AU - Dotaona, Ronnie

AU - Wilson, Bree A.L.

AU - Stevens, Mark M.

AU - Holloway, Joanne

AU - Ash, Gavin J.

N1 - Includes bibliographical references.

PY - 2017/11

Y1 - 2017/11

N2 - Cylas formicarius is a major pest of sweetpotato in Papua New Guinea. In this study, the chronic effects of infection with Metarhizium anisopliae strain QS155 in adult C. formicarius were investigated. Female fecundity was significantly reduced in treatments where females were infected directly and maintained in pairs with either infected or uninfected males, and to a statistically equivalent level (51%) when initially uninfected females were caged with infected males. A significant increase in the proportion of eggs left exposed outside the host plant occurred in response to either direct or indirect maternal exposure to M. anisopliae. The hatchability of eggs fully enclosed by host plant tissues was also significantly reduced by exposure of females to M. anisopliae; together these factors led to a total decline in reproductive success of 69%–80%. These results demonstrate that a conidial concentration of M. anisopliae strain QS155 well below that required for rapid host mortality adversely affects reproductive and behavioural traits in adult C. formicarius. When groups of C. formicarius were held together for 12 days after either all males, all females, or just a proportion of males were initially inoculated, clear evidence of horizontal transmission was obtained. In both males and females mortality arising from horizontal transmission was statistically equivalent to mortality levels when individuals of the same sex had been directly infected. Exposure to sporulating adult cadavers also caused significant mortality to uninfected SPW adults, and M. anisopliae was recovered from weevils that died following exposure to infected cadavers.

AB - Cylas formicarius is a major pest of sweetpotato in Papua New Guinea. In this study, the chronic effects of infection with Metarhizium anisopliae strain QS155 in adult C. formicarius were investigated. Female fecundity was significantly reduced in treatments where females were infected directly and maintained in pairs with either infected or uninfected males, and to a statistically equivalent level (51%) when initially uninfected females were caged with infected males. A significant increase in the proportion of eggs left exposed outside the host plant occurred in response to either direct or indirect maternal exposure to M. anisopliae. The hatchability of eggs fully enclosed by host plant tissues was also significantly reduced by exposure of females to M. anisopliae; together these factors led to a total decline in reproductive success of 69%–80%. These results demonstrate that a conidial concentration of M. anisopliae strain QS155 well below that required for rapid host mortality adversely affects reproductive and behavioural traits in adult C. formicarius. When groups of C. formicarius were held together for 12 days after either all males, all females, or just a proportion of males were initially inoculated, clear evidence of horizontal transmission was obtained. In both males and females mortality arising from horizontal transmission was statistically equivalent to mortality levels when individuals of the same sex had been directly infected. Exposure to sporulating adult cadavers also caused significant mortality to uninfected SPW adults, and M. anisopliae was recovered from weevils that died following exposure to infected cadavers.

KW - Cylas formicarius

KW - Fecundity

KW - Horizontal transmission

KW - Metarhizium anisopliae

KW - Sweetpotato

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