Circulation of oxytetracycline- And ciprofloxacin-resistant commensal Escherichia coli strains in broiler chickens and farm environments, Bangladesh

Avijit Das, Pangkaj Kumar Dhar, Avijit Dutta, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Priya Ghosh, Tripid Das, Himel Barua, Paritosh Kumar Biswas

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Abstract

Background and Aim: The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in commensal organism, such as Escherichia coli of food animals, is an alarming issue for global health. It increases the possibility of transmitting AMR determinant(s) to human bacterial pathogens by transferable genetic materials, particularly by plasmids. Hence, it is important to know which resistant genes are being carried by commensal organisms in food chain in a country and their level of temporal loads. As a result, pre-emptive measures can be advocated with an aim to reduce their risks in their primary source of circulation which consequently would benefit the public health.
Materials and Methods: Commensal E. coli strains from broiler chickens on randomly selected 30 farms and the farm environments were examined for the frequencies of isolation of resistant strains to oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin. Five birds were randomly selected from each farm to collect cloacal swab samples (total of 150 samples). Furthermore, a total of 150 environmental samples comprising one each from feed, water, soil, litter, and litter damping site of each farm were screened for the isolation of commensal E. coli strains. Strains thus obtained were initially tested for their resistance to oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin by Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method. Oxytetracycline-resistant strains were further screened for the presence of resistance determining genes, namely, tetA, tetB, and tetC by uniplex polymerase chain reactions. Risks associated with the isolation frequency of oxytetracycline- and ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli were also assessed by univariable logistic regression analysis.
Results: The results revealed that all E. coli isolates, regardless of the source of origin, were resistant to oxytetracycline, while 78.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 69.1-85.5%) showed resistance to ciprofloxacin. All the randomly selected (20) oxytetracycline-resistant strains harbored the tetA gene, whereas tetB and tetC were reported in three and two isolates, respectively. After univariable analysis, only one variable, that is, strain 1 of broiler chickens compared to two other strains was found to be positively associated with the isolation of ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli (odds ratio 12.75 [95% CI 1.0-157.1], p=0.047).
Conclusion: Resistance emerged against oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin in commensal E. coli strains circulating in live poultry and farm environments in Bangladesh seems to be very high. Thus, human infection with drug-resistant E. coli strains through food chain will critically compromise the therapeutic measures currently available. © 2020 Veterinary World. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2395-2400
Number of pages6
JournalVeterinary World
Volume13
Issue number11
Early online dateNov 2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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