This special issue contains papers about the impacts of climate change on Australian wetlands. They covered the following: assessment of wetlands under climate change, adaptation and engineering responses to climate change, and restoring wetlands under a changing climate. The key issues from these papers have wider application for the wise use of wetlands elsewhere and were used to indicate areas where the Ramsar Convention could develop new guidance as part of its Handbooks for the Wise Use of Wetlands. This included: i) assessing changes in the distribution of species and whether these constitute a change in the ecological character of the wetland; ii) assessing the usefulness of models of wetland response to climate change; iii) assessing the value in allocating water to protected sites where restoration would be contingent on reallocation of larger volumes of water; iv) assessing the efficacy of engineering responses with the potential to deliver more water-efficient environmental outcomes for wetlands; and v) determining if the description of the ecological character of a Ramsar site at the time of listing is a suitable reference for management purposes. It is recommended that further attention is directed towards determining and responding to the ecological consequences of climate change.