Permanent occlusion of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO) in the marmoset, a New World species of monkey, produces unilateral functional deficits, including motor neglect with the contralesional arm and contralesional spatial hemineglect. In this study we examined whether clomethiazole, a drug which modulates the '-aminobutyric acidA receptor, reduced the severity of the hemineglect and other deficits in this primate model of stroke. Nine monkeys received pMCAO; 1 h later four of the nine were administered clomethiazole by intraperitoneal injection and subcutaneous implantation of osmotic mini-pumps, which released clomethiazole for 48 h. The monkeys had been trained and tested on a number of behavioral tasks prior to surgery and were re-tested 3 and 10 weeks later. Three weeks after pMCAO, monkeys treated with clomethiazole had a significantly reduced degree of spatial neglect compared to untreated controls. Clomethiazole was not effective against the severe contralesional motor impairment in the current study, although it ameliorated a somewhat less severe motor deficit in a previous study in which the more distal, M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery had been occluded. Postmortem analysis of the brains showed that clomethiazole treatment had significantly reduced the area of damage in part of the parietal cortex. These data suggest that clomethiazole may reduce the neglect that can be a debilitating consequence of right-sided stroke in man.