To investigate the predictive value of combined use of D-dimer and P-selectin for splenic or portal vein thrombosis (SPVT) after splenectomy. A prospective study was carried out in 82 patients who had undergone splenectomy for portal hypertension secondary to hepatic cirrhosis. Plasma levels D-dimer and P-selectin were measured before and after the surgery.27 (30.1%) patients developed SPVT following the portal hypertension surgery. The post-operative D-dimer and P-selectin levels in patients with SPVT were significantly higher than in those without PVT (n=55, P<0.01). The receiver-operated characteristics curves (ROC) of D-dimer and P-selectin showed a significant predictive value in SPVT (D-dimer, Az=0.880, P<0.01; P-slectin, Az=0.933, P<0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of D-dimer (>500 microg/mL) in diagnosing SPVT were 88.9% and 78.2% respectively. P-selectin >90ng/mL had an 85.2% sensitivity and 85.5% specificity for SPVT. The combination of the D-dimer and P-selectin criteria yielded an 82.0% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity for SPVT. In Conclusion, there was a significant elevation in plasma D-dimer and P-selectin in patients with post-operative SPVT. A combination of plasma D-dimer and P-selectin may be used as biomarkers to screen or diagnose SPVT following splenectomy.