Although TNFÃŽ± and IL-6 were reduced after all training interventions (p < 0.05), CRP remained unchanged (p > 0.05). EET reduced area under the curve for glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, whilst CET and RET respectively reduced insulin and C-peptide, and C-peptide only (p < 0.05). Notwithstanding increased insulin sensitivity index after all training interventions (p < 0.05), no change presented for GLUT4 or p110ÃŽ± total protein, or chronic mRNA expression of the studied mitochondrial genes (p > 0.05). In middle-aged men, 12 weeks of duration-matched CET promoted commensurate changes in fitness and strength, abdominal VAT, plasma cytokines and insulin sensitivity, and an equidistant glucose tolerance response to EET and RET; despite no change of measured muscle mechanisms associative to insulin action, glucose transport, and mitochondrial function.The effect of duration-matched concurrent exercise training (CET) (50% resistance (RET) and 50% endurance (EET) training) on physiological training outcomes in untrained middle-aged men remains to be elucidated. Forty-seven men (age, 48.1 Ã‚± 6.8 years; body mass index, 30.4 Ã‚± 4.1 kgÃ‚Â·m(-2)) were randomized into 12-weeks of EET (40-60 min of cycling), RET (10 exercises; 3-4 sets ÃƒÂ— 8-10 repetitions), CET (50% serial completion of RET and EET), or control condition. The following were determined: intervention-based changes in fitness and strength; abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total body fat (TB-FM) and fat-free (TB-FFM) mass; plasma cytokines (C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-ÃŽ± (TNFÃŽ±) interleukin-6 (IL-6)); muscle protein content of p110ÃŽ± and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4); mRNA expression of GLUT4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-ÃŽÂ³ coactivator-1ÃŽ±-ÃŽÂ², cytochrome c oxidase, hexokinase II, citrate synthase; oral glucose tolerance; and estimated insulin sensitivity. CET promoted commensurate improvements of aerobic capacity and muscular strength and reduced VAT and TB-FM equivalently to EET and RET (p < 0.05), yet only RET increased TB-FFM (p < 0.05).