Compatibility of selected inotropic drugs in a syringe

Suci Hanifah, Ross Kennedy, Patrick Ball

Research output: Book chapter/Published conference paperConference paperpeer-review


Data on long-term stability of reconstituted inotropic drugs at ambient temperatures are lacking. This study the assayed compatibility of four common inotropes after reconstitution under conditions usually practiced in the clinical area. Each inotropic solution (dopamine, dobutamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine) was prepared in triplicate by adding D5 W to a syringe to a final concentration of 1.4 mg/mL for dobutamine and dopamine, and 30 μg/mL for epinephrine and norepinephrine were achieved. The solutions were stored at temperature ranged 26–28°C under either mixed daylight or fluorescent. The sample was taken at 0, 8, 24, 72, 120, and 168 hours. The pH of solutions is stable. The concentrations of dobutamine, dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine at 168 hours, compared to freshly prepared solution, were retained 91%, 105%, 90%, and 90%, respectively. Solutions of dobutamine, dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine in D5W are compatible in prefilled syringes for up to 7 days.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationUnity in Diversity and the Standardisation of Clinical Pharmacy Services
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 17th Asian Conference on Clinical Pharmacy 2017
EditorsElida Zairina, Junaidi Khotib, Chrismawan Ardianto, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Charles D. Sands III, Timothy E. Welty
Place of PublicationUSA
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781315112756
ISBN (Print)9781138081727
Publication statusPublished - 12 Dec 2017
Event17th Asian Conference on Clinical Pharmacy: ACCP 2017 - Tentrem Hotel, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Duration: 28 Jul 201730 Jul 2018 (Conference website)


Conference17th Asian Conference on Clinical Pharmacy
Abbreviated titleUnity in Diversity and the Standardisation of Clinical Pharmacy Services
OtherTo date, pharmacists have developed their roles in clinical pharmacy. Pharmacy curricula have been improved to cover the demand from stake holders along with the increase of clinical pharmacist needed in the hospitals. Meanwhile, clinical pharmacy services in community pharmacy setting have also started to rise as more “patient oriented” services paradigm and “pharmaceutical care” concept has been accepted in Asian countries.

The original idea of ACCP came from Asian pharmacists who were looking for a practical conference in which they could exchange and share ideas on the concept of clinical pharmacy. In 1996, representatives from China, Korea, Japan, and USA met in Seoul, Korea to plan for the first conference. As a result, the first East Asia Conference on Developing Clinical Pharmacy Practice and Clinical Pharmacy Education (EACDCPPE) was held in America in 1997. Only 36 representatives attended and it was planned by pioneers as bi-annual meeting. In 1999, the second EACDCPPE was successively held in Shanghai. This conference enables more representatives in Asia countries to realize the differences between Asian and Western countries in development of clinical pharmacy.

When the third conference was held in Japan in 2003, the title of the conference was changed to Asian Conference on Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP). This opened the conference to more Asian countries also the subject of clinical pharmacy was more strengthened. With series of other Asian countries such as Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore, and so on attended ACCP, as well as with the rapid development of clinical pharmacy in Asia, every country was enthusiastic in attending and holding this conference. On the 5th conference in Malaysia in 2005, the decision was made among the representatives of the member countries to hold the conference annually instead of biannually for efficiency and convenience in regards to communicating and sharing about clinical pharmacy.

Indonesia hosted the 8th ACCP in Surabaya in 2008, and is hosting the 17th ACCP in Yogyakarta this year. This year will be a celebration for 20 years of ACCP. During the past 20 years, ACCP has been a major event in the clinical pharmacy scope in Asia and has been conducted in various countries especially in Asia. Clinical pharmacists have attended this prestigious meeting to share their experience in the fields of practice, research, and education on clinical pharmacy. Clinical-pharmacist experts from USA, Canada, Australia, and UK have continuously come and transfer their knowledge and shared advance clinical pharmacy practice experiences. This conference supports rapid knowledge and experience transfer and enhances the emerging of clinical pharmacy practice in Asia.
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