The influence of κ-carrageenan (KC) depolymerization using ultrasound on its interaction with β-lactoglobulin (BLG) was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), turbidity measurement, dynamic light scattering and zeta-potential analyses. Time and amplitude of the sonication had a direct effect on the viscosity depression, while the sonication temperature had an opposite effect. ITC measurements indicated that the sonication significantly decreased the affinity constant between KC and BLG. The zeta-potential of the nanoparticles produced from ultrasonicated (US) KC–BLG associative interaction was lower than of those produced from intact (IN) KC–BLG interaction. These differences were attributed to the lower charge density of the KC (US) as a result of sonochemical interactions. Polydispersity and particle size measurements showed that the effect of the sonication was the homogenisation of the nanoparticles in the mixed dispersion. The nanoparticles formed may therefore be useful as a delivery system for fortification purposes of acidic beverages.