Comprehensive Pathogen Identification, Antibiotic Resistance, and Virulence Genes Prediction Directly From Simulated Blood Samples and Positive Blood Cultures by Nanopore Metagenomic Sequencing

Menglan Zhou, Yarong Wu, Timothy Kudinha, Peiyao Jia, Lei Wang, Yingchun Xu, Qiwen Yang

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Abstract

Bloodstream infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We explored whether MinION nanopore sequencing could accelerate diagnosis, resistance, and virulence profiling prediction in simulated blood samples and blood cultures. One milliliter of healthy blood samples each from direct spike (sample 1), anaerobic (sample 2), and aerobic (sample 3) blood cultures with initial inoculation of ∼30 CFU/ml of a clinically isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae strain was subjected to DNA extraction and nanopore sequencing. Hybrid assembly of Illumina and nanopore reads from pure colonies of the isolate (sample 4) was used as a reference for comparison. Hybrid assembly of the reference genome identified a total of 39 antibiotic resistance genes and 77 virulence genes through alignment with the CARD and VFDB databases. Nanopore correctly detected K. pneumoniae in all three blood samples. The fastest identification was achieved within 8 h from specimen to result in sample 1 without blood culture. However, direct sequencing in sample 1 only identified seven resistance genes (20.6%) but 28 genes in samples 2–4 (82.4%) compared to the reference within 2 h of sequencing time. Similarly, 11 (14.3%) and 74 (96.1%) of the virulence genes were detected in samples 1 and 2–4 within 2 h of sequencing time, respectively. Direct nanopore sequencing from positive blood cultures allowed comprehensive pathogen identification, resistance, and virulence genes prediction within 2 h, which shows its promising use in point-of-care clinical settings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number620009
JournalFrontiers in Genetics
Volume12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Mar 2021

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