Nepal is recognized internationally for its effort in promoting collaborative management of protected areas. However, protected areas in the Tarai lowland are managed with low levels of community participation in decision making. In the Royal Chitwan National Park (RCNP), this has led to management decisions seriously threatening the livelihood and cultural heritage of the local people, such as the resettlement program established to move people from villages inside the park. This article presents findings from an analysis of the resettlement program, documenting the consequences of the relocation process on people's livelihood and cultural heritage. The results show that local people have had little influence on the relocation process and park planning; however, positive attitudes toward nature conservation and the RCNP were expressed. The article challenges the existing conservation paradigm currently practiced by the RCNP and calls for park management to reassess the resettlement policy by initiating new policies toward a more collaborative paradigm integrating conservation and development needs.