Constraining the p-Mode–g-Mode Tidal Instability with GW170817

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Abstract

We analyze the impact of a proposed tidal instability coupling p modes and g modes within neutron stars on GW170817. This nonresonant instability transfers energy from the orbit of the binary to internal modes of the stars, accelerating the gravitational-wave driven inspiral. We model the impact of this instability on the phasing of the gravitational wave signal using three parameters per star: an overall amplitude, a saturation frequency, and a spectral index. Incorporating these additional parameters, we compute the Bayes factor (lnBpg!pg) comparing our p−g model to a standard one. We find that the observed signal is consistent with waveform models that neglect p−g effects, with lnBpg!pg=0.03+0.70−0.58 (maximum a posteriori and 90% credible region). By injecting simulated signals that do not include p−g effects and recovering them with the p−g model, we show that there is a ≃50% probability of obtaining similar lnBpg!pg even when p−g effects are absent. We find that the p−g amplitude for 1.4  M⊙ neutron stars is constrained to less than a few tenths of the theoretical maximum, with maxima a posteriori near one-tenth this maximum and p−g saturation frequency ∼70  Hz. This suggests that there are less than a few hundred excited modes, assuming they all saturate by wave breaking. For comparison, theoretical upper bounds suggest ≲103 modes saturate by wave breaking. Thus, the measured constraints only rule out extreme values of the p−g parameters. They also imply that the instability dissipates ≲1051  erg over the entire inspiral, i.e., less than a few percent of the energy radiated as gravitational waves.
Original languageEnglish
Article number061104
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Volume122
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Feb 2019

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gravitational waves
neutron stars
saturation
stars
waveforms
energy transfer
orbits
energy

Cite this

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title = "Constraining the p-Mode–g-Mode Tidal Instability with GW170817",
abstract = "We analyze the impact of a proposed tidal instability coupling p modes and g modes within neutron stars on GW170817. This nonresonant instability transfers energy from the orbit of the binary to internal modes of the stars, accelerating the gravitational-wave driven inspiral. We model the impact of this instability on the phasing of the gravitational wave signal using three parameters per star: an overall amplitude, a saturation frequency, and a spectral index. Incorporating these additional parameters, we compute the Bayes factor (lnBpg!pg) comparing our p−g model to a standard one. We find that the observed signal is consistent with waveform models that neglect p−g effects, with lnBpg!pg=0.03+0.70−0.58 (maximum a posteriori and 90{\%} credible region). By injecting simulated signals that do not include p−g effects and recovering them with the p−g model, we show that there is a ≃50{\%} probability of obtaining similar lnBpg!pg even when p−g effects are absent. We find that the p−g amplitude for 1.4  M⊙ neutron stars is constrained to less than a few tenths of the theoretical maximum, with maxima a posteriori near one-tenth this maximum and p−g saturation frequency ∼70  Hz. This suggests that there are less than a few hundred excited modes, assuming they all saturate by wave breaking. For comparison, theoretical upper bounds suggest ≲103 modes saturate by wave breaking. Thus, the measured constraints only rule out extreme values of the p−g parameters. They also imply that the instability dissipates ≲1051  erg over the entire inspiral, i.e., less than a few percent of the energy radiated as gravitational waves.",
keywords = "Gravitational wave detection, gravitational wave sources, gravitational waves",
author = "Philip Charlton",
year = "2019",
month = "2",
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language = "English",
volume = "122",
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Constraining the p-Mode–g-Mode Tidal Instability with GW170817. / Charlton, Philip.

In: Physical Review Letters, Vol. 122, No. 6, 061104, 13.02.2019, p. 1-13.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Constraining the p-Mode–g-Mode Tidal Instability with GW170817

AU - Charlton, Philip

PY - 2019/2/13

Y1 - 2019/2/13

N2 - We analyze the impact of a proposed tidal instability coupling p modes and g modes within neutron stars on GW170817. This nonresonant instability transfers energy from the orbit of the binary to internal modes of the stars, accelerating the gravitational-wave driven inspiral. We model the impact of this instability on the phasing of the gravitational wave signal using three parameters per star: an overall amplitude, a saturation frequency, and a spectral index. Incorporating these additional parameters, we compute the Bayes factor (lnBpg!pg) comparing our p−g model to a standard one. We find that the observed signal is consistent with waveform models that neglect p−g effects, with lnBpg!pg=0.03+0.70−0.58 (maximum a posteriori and 90% credible region). By injecting simulated signals that do not include p−g effects and recovering them with the p−g model, we show that there is a ≃50% probability of obtaining similar lnBpg!pg even when p−g effects are absent. We find that the p−g amplitude for 1.4  M⊙ neutron stars is constrained to less than a few tenths of the theoretical maximum, with maxima a posteriori near one-tenth this maximum and p−g saturation frequency ∼70  Hz. This suggests that there are less than a few hundred excited modes, assuming they all saturate by wave breaking. For comparison, theoretical upper bounds suggest ≲103 modes saturate by wave breaking. Thus, the measured constraints only rule out extreme values of the p−g parameters. They also imply that the instability dissipates ≲1051  erg over the entire inspiral, i.e., less than a few percent of the energy radiated as gravitational waves.

AB - We analyze the impact of a proposed tidal instability coupling p modes and g modes within neutron stars on GW170817. This nonresonant instability transfers energy from the orbit of the binary to internal modes of the stars, accelerating the gravitational-wave driven inspiral. We model the impact of this instability on the phasing of the gravitational wave signal using three parameters per star: an overall amplitude, a saturation frequency, and a spectral index. Incorporating these additional parameters, we compute the Bayes factor (lnBpg!pg) comparing our p−g model to a standard one. We find that the observed signal is consistent with waveform models that neglect p−g effects, with lnBpg!pg=0.03+0.70−0.58 (maximum a posteriori and 90% credible region). By injecting simulated signals that do not include p−g effects and recovering them with the p−g model, we show that there is a ≃50% probability of obtaining similar lnBpg!pg even when p−g effects are absent. We find that the p−g amplitude for 1.4  M⊙ neutron stars is constrained to less than a few tenths of the theoretical maximum, with maxima a posteriori near one-tenth this maximum and p−g saturation frequency ∼70  Hz. This suggests that there are less than a few hundred excited modes, assuming they all saturate by wave breaking. For comparison, theoretical upper bounds suggest ≲103 modes saturate by wave breaking. Thus, the measured constraints only rule out extreme values of the p−g parameters. They also imply that the instability dissipates ≲1051  erg over the entire inspiral, i.e., less than a few percent of the energy radiated as gravitational waves.

KW - Gravitational wave detection

KW - gravitational wave sources

KW - gravitational waves

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.061104

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.061104

M3 - Article

C2 - 30822067

VL - 122

SP - 1

EP - 13

JO - Physical Review Letters

JF - Physical Review Letters

SN - 0031-9007

IS - 6

M1 - 061104

ER -