Constraints to adoption of improved technology for berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) cultivation in Punjab, Pakistan

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Abstract

Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) is an important forage legume and is the primary winter forage crop in Pakistan. There are significant gaps in yield potential among varieties of berseem clover, as well as yields obtained at research stations and on-farm. To address this problem a survey of farmers was undertaken in the districts of Kasur and Okara, Punjab, Pakistan to determine the level of knowledge and understanding of berseem forage cultivation and seed production. The study comprised 44% smallholder (<3 ha), 26% medium (3–5 ha) and 30% large farmers (>5 ha) with average age of 42 years. Most farmers had little or no knowledge of the role of seed quality, inoculation with rhizobium, pollination, fertiliser use, irrigation management and the importance of forage nutritional value in improving livestock productivity. Most farmers (56%) had received no input from the government or private sector to improve forage production, relying instead on traditional knowledge. Knowledge of the importance of land preparation (95%), sowing rate (98%) and insect and pest management (75%) was higher than seed selection and fertilisation. Adoption of improved varieties (3%) and production technologies (14%) was low due to various constraints including ignorance, high cost of inputs, lack of availability of inputs in the market and a perceived high level of financial risk. Almost 100% of the respondents agreed that seed of improved varieties was a pre-requisite for higher forage and seed production as well as essential to start village-based forage seed enterprises.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-56
Number of pages19
JournalExperimental Agriculture
Volume55
Issue number1
Early online date02 Nov 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2019

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Trifolium alexandrinum
Pakistan
seed crop production
forage production
forage
farmers
seeds
input costs
indigenous knowledge
private sector
forage crops
site preparation
forage legumes
cultivars
fertilization (reproduction)
seed quality
pest management
irrigation management
Rhizobium
villages

Cite this

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title = "Constraints to adoption of improved technology for berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) cultivation in Punjab, Pakistan",
abstract = "Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) is an important forage legume and is the primary winter forage crop in Pakistan. There are significant gaps in yield potential among varieties of berseem clover, as well as yields obtained at research stations and on-farm. To address this problem a survey of farmers was undertaken in the districts of Kasur and Okara, Punjab, Pakistan to determine the level of knowledge and understanding of berseem forage cultivation and seed production. The study comprised 44{\%} smallholder (<3 ha), 26{\%} medium (3–5 ha) and 30{\%} large farmers (>5 ha) with average age of 42 years. Most farmers had little or no knowledge of the role of seed quality, inoculation with rhizobium, pollination, fertiliser use, irrigation management and the importance of forage nutritional value in improving livestock productivity. Most farmers (56{\%}) had received no input from the government or private sector to improve forage production, relying instead on traditional knowledge. Knowledge of the importance of land preparation (95{\%}), sowing rate (98{\%}) and insect and pest management (75{\%}) was higher than seed selection and fertilisation. Adoption of improved varieties (3{\%}) and production technologies (14{\%}) was low due to various constraints including ignorance, high cost of inputs, lack of availability of inputs in the market and a perceived high level of financial risk. Almost 100{\%} of the respondents agreed that seed of improved varieties was a pre-requisite for higher forage and seed production as well as essential to start village-based forage seed enterprises.",
keywords = "Seed enterprises, Forage, Irrigation, Management, Fodder, Yield",
author = "TUFAIL, {M. S.} and S. NIELSEN and A. SOUTHWELL and KREBS, {G. L.} and PILTZ, {J. W.} and NORTON, {M. R.} and WYNN, {P. C.}",
year = "2019",
month = "2",
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T1 - Constraints to adoption of improved technology for berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) cultivation in Punjab, Pakistan

AU - TUFAIL, M. S.

AU - NIELSEN, S.

AU - SOUTHWELL, A.

AU - KREBS, G. L.

AU - PILTZ, J. W.

AU - NORTON, M. R.

AU - WYNN, P. C.

PY - 2019/2

Y1 - 2019/2

N2 - Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) is an important forage legume and is the primary winter forage crop in Pakistan. There are significant gaps in yield potential among varieties of berseem clover, as well as yields obtained at research stations and on-farm. To address this problem a survey of farmers was undertaken in the districts of Kasur and Okara, Punjab, Pakistan to determine the level of knowledge and understanding of berseem forage cultivation and seed production. The study comprised 44% smallholder (<3 ha), 26% medium (3–5 ha) and 30% large farmers (>5 ha) with average age of 42 years. Most farmers had little or no knowledge of the role of seed quality, inoculation with rhizobium, pollination, fertiliser use, irrigation management and the importance of forage nutritional value in improving livestock productivity. Most farmers (56%) had received no input from the government or private sector to improve forage production, relying instead on traditional knowledge. Knowledge of the importance of land preparation (95%), sowing rate (98%) and insect and pest management (75%) was higher than seed selection and fertilisation. Adoption of improved varieties (3%) and production technologies (14%) was low due to various constraints including ignorance, high cost of inputs, lack of availability of inputs in the market and a perceived high level of financial risk. Almost 100% of the respondents agreed that seed of improved varieties was a pre-requisite for higher forage and seed production as well as essential to start village-based forage seed enterprises.

AB - Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) is an important forage legume and is the primary winter forage crop in Pakistan. There are significant gaps in yield potential among varieties of berseem clover, as well as yields obtained at research stations and on-farm. To address this problem a survey of farmers was undertaken in the districts of Kasur and Okara, Punjab, Pakistan to determine the level of knowledge and understanding of berseem forage cultivation and seed production. The study comprised 44% smallholder (<3 ha), 26% medium (3–5 ha) and 30% large farmers (>5 ha) with average age of 42 years. Most farmers had little or no knowledge of the role of seed quality, inoculation with rhizobium, pollination, fertiliser use, irrigation management and the importance of forage nutritional value in improving livestock productivity. Most farmers (56%) had received no input from the government or private sector to improve forage production, relying instead on traditional knowledge. Knowledge of the importance of land preparation (95%), sowing rate (98%) and insect and pest management (75%) was higher than seed selection and fertilisation. Adoption of improved varieties (3%) and production technologies (14%) was low due to various constraints including ignorance, high cost of inputs, lack of availability of inputs in the market and a perceived high level of financial risk. Almost 100% of the respondents agreed that seed of improved varieties was a pre-requisite for higher forage and seed production as well as essential to start village-based forage seed enterprises.

KW - Seed enterprises

KW - Forage

KW - Irrigation

KW - Management

KW - Fodder

KW - Yield

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U2 - 10.1017/S0014479717000540

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M3 - Article

VL - 55

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EP - 56

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JF - Experimental Agriculture

SN - 0014-4797

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