Objective: Recent developments in micro-emulsification technology have allowed the fortification of foods with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) without the undesirable fish odour/taste and with reasonable shelf life. The effects of supplementing the diets of people with diabetes type II with a hummus-based dip enriched with long-chain n-3PUFA on plasma fatty acid composition and lipid levels were examined.
Design: A pre- and post-intervention study. Setting: This study was conducted at the University of Newcastle, Australia. Subjects: Participants were recruited via advertisements on the University of Newcastle notice boards and in the local newspapers. Following initial response to study advertisements, information statements were mailed out to 29 potential participants. Thirteen participants were eligible and consented to participate in the trial. There were no dropouts as all the 13 participants completed 6-week intervention trial.
Methods: Free-living male and female subjects with diabetes type II (n = 13) consumed the n-3PUFA-enriched dip for a period of 6 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected pre- and post-intervention for analyses of fatty acids and plasma lipids. Results: Following 6 weeks of consuming the enriched dip, all the long-chain n-3PUFA (20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3) were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the plasma lipids. This represented an increase in 20:5n-3 content by 117% increase in 22:5n-3 content by 15% and an increase in 22:6n-3 content by 80% over the baseline values before dip consumption. A significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the plasma triglyceride levels from 1.93 (1.08-2.09)mmol/l at baseline to 1.27 (0.93-2.22)mmol/l after 6 weeks was also apparent following the consumption of the n-3PUFA-enriched dip. Plasma cholesterol was unchanged; however, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (2.46 ± 0.21 versus 2.72 ± 0.22 ± mmol/l, P < 0.034) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (1.16 ± 0.09 versus 1.22 ± 0.09mmol/l, P < 0.042) were significantly increased following the dietary intervention. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that n-3PUFA are readily bioavailable from the fortified dip matrix and alter the plasma lipid profile.