A new species of nematode, Contracaecum pyripapillatum, is reported from the Australian pelican, Pelecanus conspicillatus. This species resembles Contracaecum multipapillatum which was found in the same host. These two species can be differentiated from one another based on the shape of the preanal papillae, being pyriform in C. pyripapillatum and circular in C. multipapillatum. Genetically, the two species differ in the sequences of first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, respectively) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). C. pyripapillatum and C. multipapillatum differed in the ITS-1 (443bp in both species) and ITS-2 (between 231 and 233bp) sequences by 3.4-3.8% and 6.0%, respectively. Based on previous allozyme and mtDNA datasets, genotypes of C. multipapillatum A, B, and C have been reported from Europe and USA. Therefore, C. multipapillatum from Australia has been designated as C. multipapillatum D. A morphological examination of these genotypes is necessary to determine whether they represent distinct species.