Controlling wildlife fungal disease spread: in vitro efficacy of disinfectants against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Mucor amphibiorum

Rebecca Webb, Annie Philips, Rick Speare, Joanne Connolly, Lee Berger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and mucormycosis in the platypus Ornitho rhynchusanatinus and amphibians, are serious fungal diseases affecting these aquatic taxa. In Tasmania,Australia, the fungi that cause these diseases overlap in range along with Phytophthora cinnamomi(Pc), an invasive fungal plant pathogen. To identify disinfectants that may be useful to reduce anthropogenicspread of these fungi to uninfected wilderness areas, for example by bush walkers andforestry or fire-fighting operations, we tested 3 disinfectants and a fire-fighting foam againstMucor amphibiorum (Ma) and tested 1 disinfectant and the foam against Batracho chytrium dendrobatidis(Bd). Combining the present study with previous work we found Bd was more susceptibleto all 4 chemicals than Ma. Phytoclean, a disinfectant used at 2 to 10% for 30 s to control Pc,killed cultures of Bd at 0.075% and Ma at 5%, when also applied for 30 s. The disinfectant F10scwas not effective against Ma at standard exposures, but previous work shows Bd is killed at 0.03%with a 1 min exposure. Path-X is effective against Bd at 0.001% with a 30 s exposure and killed Maat 1% with a 5 min exposure. Forexpan S, a foam added to water at 0.1 to 1% to control forest fires,killed Bd but not Ma when used at 1% for 2 min. Therefore, Phytoclean and Path-X have broaderefficacy, although Path-X has not been trialled against Pc. Interestingly a positive mating strain ofMa (from a platypus) was more resistant to disinfectants than a negative strain (from a frog). Currentprotocols against Pc that involve high concentrations (10%) of Phytoclean are likely to reducespread of pathogenic wildlife fungi, which is important for protecting biodiversity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-125
Number of pages7
JournalDiseases of Aquatic Organisms
Volume99
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2012

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