The aim of this chapter is to review the literature on the use of cooling interventions in the protection of and recovery of performance from exercise-induced heat stress. This chapter will encompass two priority foci, including respectively the effects of pre-cooling on the improvement in exercise performance and the effects of post-exercise cooling on recovery. While pre-cooling has received much attention in the research literature, the mechanisms resulting in enhanced performance remain equivocal and moreover, pre-cooling has previously only been considered effective for endurance performance. Research literature will be evaluated in the light of more recent publications to examine the effects of pre-cooling on exercise performance and prevention of heat related illness. Further, this chapter will also deal with the suppression of exercise performance following heat stress and the use of cooling methods to improve the recovery of muscle function and subsequent exercise performance. Given the use of cold water immersion as a recovery practice of many athletes, a surprising lack of literature is available on the effects of cooling as a recovery tool from heat stress. As such, this chapter will discuss the use of cooling interventions on both the prevention of heat stress and recovery of performance from exercise-induced heat stress.