This work outlines the influence of Cu(II) and SO2 concentrations in Chardonnay juice or Shiraz must on the respective wine composition. Analyses were conducted pre- and post-fermentation, after cold stabilization, after bentonite treatment (Chardonnay only), at bottling, and 15 months after bottling. The quantification of total Cu was conducted by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and free Cu by stripping potentiometry. Low molecular weight sulfur compounds, volatile aldehyde compounds, and general volatile compounds, including esters and terpenes, were quantified with gas-chromatography- or liquid-chromatography-QQQ-mass spectrometry. For Chardonnay, increased Cu concentration in the juice resulted in higher concentrations of Cu in the respective wine, while Shiraz wines showed no significant difference. Increased Cu addition to Chardonnay juice also produced significantly higher concentrations of H2S, 3-methylbutanal, and methional, but lower concentrations of methanethiol and phenylacetaldehyde, while SO2 addition increased 3-methylbutanal and phenylacetaldehyde, and decreased methanethiol production from post-fermentation to post-bottle aging. For the Shiraz, SO2 led to higher concentrations of H2S, and both SO2 and Cu addition increased the concentrations of hexanal, 3-methylbutanal, and phenylacetaldehyde in wine, but this effect diminished after cold stabilization. This study shows that SO2 and Cu in grape juice/must can have long-term implications for wine composition.