|Title of host publication||The SAGE encyclopedia of human communication sciences and disorders|
|Editors||Jack S. Damico, Martin J. Ball|
|Place of Publication||Thousand Oaks, CA.|
|Publisher||SAGE Publications Ltd|
|Number of pages||5|
|Publication status||Published - 2019|
Craniofacial anomalies are differences in the bones and tissue of the face or head, including the structures of the nose and mouth, jaw, ears, and sutures of the skull. They are often congenital and may occur in embryological development. Congenital craniofacial anomalies—the most common being cleft lip and palate, craniosynostosis, and hemifacial microsomia—are the focus of this entry; however, they can also be acquired as the result of trauma or disease. Other craniofacial conditions include Treacher Collins syndrome, CHARGE association, holoprosencephaly, and fetal alcohol syndrome. Craniofacial anomalies are some of the most common congenital conditions and can affect appearance, speech, hearing, dentition, occlusion, breathing, vision, and feeding. They can also have complex and far-reaching consequences for affected children and families.