Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection can cause reproductive failure in sows and acute myocarditis and sudden death in piglets. It has caused huge economic losses to the global pig industry and that is why it is necessary to develop effective new treatment compounds. Zedoary turmeric oil has been used for treating myocarditis. Curcumol extracted from the roots of curcuma is one of the main active ingredient of zedoary turmeric oil. The anti-EMCV activity of curcumol along with the molecular mechanisms involved with a focus on IFN-β signaling pathway was investigated in this study.Method
3-(4,5-dimethyithiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the maximum non-toxic concentration (MNTC), 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50), maximum inhibition rate (MIR) and 50% effective concentration (EC50) against EMCV. Through EMCV load, the anti-viral effect of curcumol was quantitatively determined using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The effect of curcumol on the expression of IFN-β was investigated using real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA. Western blot was used to determine the amounts of MDA5, MAVS, TANK, IRF3 and P-IRF3 proteins in human embryonic kidney 293 T (HEK-293 T) cells infected with EMCV.Results
The results of MTT showed that compared with the ribavirin positive control group, the maximum inhibition ratio (MIR) of curcumol was greater but the selection index (SI) value was much smaller than that of ribavirin. The results of qPCR showed that curcumol and ribavirin significantly reduced the replication of EMCV in HEK-293 T cells. The curcumol (0.025 mg/mL) treatment has significantly increased IFN-β mRNA expression in the EMCV-infected HEK-293 T cells while ribavirin treatment did not. The results of ELISA showed that curcumol (0.025 mg/mL and 0.0125 mg/mL) has significantly increased the expression of IFN-β protein in EMCV-infected HEK-293 T cells. The results of Western blot showed that curcumol can inhibit the degradation of TANK protein mediated by EMCV and promote the expression of MDA5 and P-IRF3, while the protein expression level of MAVS and IRF3 remain unchanged.Conclusion
Curcumol has biological activity against EMCV which we suggest that IFN-β signaling pathway is one of its mechanisms.