Deep learning for breast cancer classification: Enhanced tangent function

Ashu Thapa, Abeer Alsadoon, P. W.C. Prasad, Simi Bajaj, Omar Hisham Alsadoon, Tarik A. Rashid, Rasha S. Ali, Oday D. Jerew

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Recently, deep learning using convolutional neural network (CNN) has been used successfully to classify the images of breast cells accurately. However, the accuracy of manual classification of those histopathological images is comparatively low. This research aims to increase the accuracy of the classification of breast cancer images by utilizing a patch-based classifier (PBC) along with deep learning architecture. The proposed system consists of a deep convolutional neural network that helps in enhancing and increasing the accuracy of the classification process. This is done by the use of the PBC. CNN has completely different layers where images are first fed through convolutional layers using hyperbolic tangent function together with the max-pooling layer, drop out layers, and SoftMax function for classification. Further, the output obtained is fed to a PBC that consists of patch-wise classification output followed by majority voting. The results are obtained throughout the classification stage for breast cancer images that are collected from breast-histology datasets. The proposed solution improves the accuracy of classification whether or not the images had normal, benign, in-situ, or invasive carcinoma from 87% to 94% with a decrease in processing time from 0.45 to 0.2 s on average. The proposed solution focused on increasing the accuracy of classifying cancer in the breast by enhancing the image contrast and reducing the vanishing gradient. Finally, this solution for the implementation of the contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization technique and modified tangent function helps in increasing the accuracy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)506-529
Number of pages24
JournalComputational Intelligence
Issue number2
Early online date15 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022


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