Defining two novel sub models of the Anglo-American paramedic system: A Delphi study

Timothy Makrides, Linda Ross, Cameron Gosling, Joseph Acker, Peter O'Meara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


IntroductionWhile brief and fragmented accounts of the differences between systems have been noted in the literature, until recently there has been a lack of research that explores and identifies new sub-models of paramedicine within the Anglo-American paramedic system.MethodsA Delphi method was used to gain consensus among international paramedic experts regarding two new models of paramedicine known as the Directive and Professionally Autonomous paramedic systems. Following the development of a preliminary definition, a set of questions were established for experts aimed at defining the new sub-models; the responses were reviewed and amended based on feedback before being re-distributed to an expanded group of participants for further rounds of questions. Rounds continued until consensus was achieved.ResultsConsensus was achieved for both statements regarding the Professionally Autonomous paramedic system definition in round 2, 85.7% (n = 18). Following analysis and revision of the definition, the additional two statements regarding the Directive paramedic system achieved consensus in round 3, 100% (n = 19).ConclusionThis Delphi study was the first study to explore a standardised definition for two newly identified sub-models of the Anglo-American paramedic system with the overall results used to help inform high performing system design for modern Anglo-American paramedic systems into the future.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)229-234
Number of pages6
JournalAustralasian Emergency Care
Issue number3
Early online date24 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


Dive into the research topics of 'Defining two novel sub models of the Anglo-American paramedic system: A Delphi study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this