Description and genetic characterisation of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae) larvae parasitic in Australian marine fishes.

Shokoofeh Shamsi, R. Gasser, I. Beveridge

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Abstract

Nematodes belonging to the genus Hysterothylacium (family Raphidascarididae) infect various species of marine fish in both the larval and adult stages. Humans can be accidentally infected upon eating infected seafood. In spite of their importance, relatively little is known of their occurrence and systematics in Australia. An examination of various species of marine teleosts in Australian waters revealed a high prevalence of Hysterothylacium larval types. In the present study, seven previously undescribed Hysterothylacium larval morphotypes (V to VII and IX to XII) were discovered. In total we found 10 different morphotypes and we genetically characterised nine morphotypes identified. A morphological dichotomous identification key has been established to differentiate these morphotypes. Since some larvae of Hysterothylacium from marine fishes cannot be differentiated morphologically from other nematode larvae, such as Paraheterotyphlum, Heterotyphlum, Iheringascaris and Lapetascaris, the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of these larvae were characterised to confirm their taxonomic status. This genetic characterisation implied that some distinct morphotypes belong to different developmental stages of the same species. In addition, it revealed that some morphotypes can comprise distinct genotypes. No match was found between ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences obtained from larvae in the present study and those from adults available in the GenBank, highlighting the lack of knowledge on occurrence of adult nematodes infecting Australian fish.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)320-328
Number of pages9
JournalParasitology International
Volume62
Early online date2012
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013

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Nematoda
Larva
Fishes
Seafood
Nucleic Acid Databases
Ribosomal DNA
Eating
Genotype
Water

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title = "Description and genetic characterisation of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae) larvae parasitic in Australian marine fishes.",
abstract = "Nematodes belonging to the genus Hysterothylacium (family Raphidascarididae) infect various species of marine fish in both the larval and adult stages. Humans can be accidentally infected upon eating infected seafood. In spite of their importance, relatively little is known of their occurrence and systematics in Australia. An examination of various species of marine teleosts in Australian waters revealed a high prevalence of Hysterothylacium larval types. In the present study, seven previously undescribed Hysterothylacium larval morphotypes (V to VII and IX to XII) were discovered. In total we found 10 different morphotypes and we genetically characterised nine morphotypes identified. A morphological dichotomous identification key has been established to differentiate these morphotypes. Since some larvae of Hysterothylacium from marine fishes cannot be differentiated morphologically from other nematode larvae, such as Paraheterotyphlum, Heterotyphlum, Iheringascaris and Lapetascaris, the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of these larvae were characterised to confirm their taxonomic status. This genetic characterisation implied that some distinct morphotypes belong to different developmental stages of the same species. In addition, it revealed that some morphotypes can comprise distinct genotypes. No match was found between ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences obtained from larvae in the present study and those from adults available in the GenBank, highlighting the lack of knowledge on occurrence of adult nematodes infecting Australian fish.",
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