Being listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, knowledge on the biology, health and diseases of the scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith) is limited; this is especially true for its parasites. In this paper, a new species, Pulchrascaris australis, is morphologically described followed by genetic characterisation based on the sequence of the ITS region. The new species can be easily differentiated from its congeners based on the morphology of the mouthpart, spicules, plectanes, eggs and vulva. Phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguish specimens in the present study from other parasitic nematodes found in the Australasian waters and elsewhere. The sequencing data also suggest that Terranova larval type I found previously in various fish from New Caledonian and Australian (Queensland) waters also belong to Pulchrascaris australis n. sp.