Background: A father's ability to cope with fatherhood in the perinatal period has received limited attention in the literature. Recent studies have shown that both mothers and fathers are challenged by the demands of parenthood. Aims: The challenges experienced by fathers during the perinatal period are explored and specific risk factors are identified. The aim of this paper was to develop a framework embedding the identified risk factors into a theoretical model that could be applied in predicting paternal emotional well-being. Methods: This literature review consulted English peer-reviewed papers as far back as 1990. Databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses were examined. Results: The results of the literature review depicted a number of factors that could be aggregated into four clusters, including vulnerability factors, precipitating factors, coping style, and socio-cultural factors. Limitation: The literature review was limited as it only examined English based peer-reviewed articles. Conclusion: The suggested model is based on various theoretical concepts and empirical findings. The application of this model could assist clinicians in the identification of at-risk perinatal fathers and target interventions to specific challenges experienced by perinatal fathers.